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Jardinggu Keninu: Osura Individuasang / Individuation Overview

Kontu mergulah na mar rentu di alma, klai bos lembrah di isti lugah? Klai bos papiah? Kiora bos ingkontrah muleh di mulera, mer-machu di mar sa fundu, ki sorti di nomi bos dah kung olotu? Pra mutu tantu jenti (yo pun), yo lembrah nus inda lembrah kung papiah na nus sa mulera sibrih Inggres; asih, pintura di rentu pun teng ngua sintidu kung signifiku di Westi podih fikah mutu stranjeru pra nus bibeh na otru banda kung kampu kung parti di isti mundu grandi.


Prumiru, dispois yo sa trauma grandi di 2019, yo pun ja prendeh nomi-nomi Westi di banda kung spiritu di psyche. Isti nomi chegah, sertu; olotu sa signifiku judah tantu jenti na tudu banda di mundu prendeh mas di olotu onsong sa alma kung korsang. Nang asih, pun podih lembrah di nus sa mundu di rentu kung manera diferenti, kung manera mas bong apoyah nus sa kada dia sa susesu kung trabalu.


Osura Individuasang: Palabra pra falah di Peskisa Individuation


Palabra inggres "individuation" mutu kumpridu! Prumiru podih linggustah stretu beng Inggres (ke Portugis):


sibrih mpustah: individuasang ke indibiduasang di Inggres sa individuation


Fasel, mas Reglasang di Skundeh pra isti palabra ngka mutu bong: teng seis syllable, song igual kema Inggres kung Portugis. Pun podih figurah impoku, sibrih Kristang sa palabra pesua—impoku mas pertu di Inggres sa palabra individual di Kristang sa otru palabra jenti:


sibrih compounding: fikah pesua interu di palabra Kristang kunisedu

sibrih ganchah: pesuamintu di Kristang sa pesua kung suffix palnomi^ -mintu

sibrih ganchah: pesuasang di Kristang sa pesua kung suffix palnomi^ -sang


fikah pesua interu mutu kumpridu kung impoku unwieldy. Intresmiu basu sa dos, pesuamintu mas pertu di signifiku, pesuasang mas pertu di morphology kauzu -sang na Kristang mamenus iguai Inggres sa -tion. Fuad kung yo gostah pesuasang impoku mas di pesuamintu, mas yo lembrah tres-tres pun podih.


Kontu ngua jenti ta individuate? Palaksang pun podih teng tantu figura:


sibrih mpustah: indivijuah ke indibidjuah di Inggres individuate


Tona fraku sa gadrah di Reglasang di Skundeh; kung amostra di pedreh syllable prumiru, podih fikah:


sibrih mpustah kung pedreh syllable prumiru: ndibjah ke dibjah


Kontu nus sibrih pesua chuma rais:


sibrih ganchah: pesuah di Kristang sa pesua + -/ɂ/ ke /a/ [= -a, +ah kora skribeh]

sibrih ganchah: pesueh di Kristang sa pesua + -/ɂ/ ke /e/ [= -a, +eh kora skribeh]


Pra adjetibu individuated, logu derive di palaksang ja skuleh:


dibjadu di ndibjah ke dibjah

ke pesuadu di pesuah

ke pesuedu di pesueh


Pra psyche, yo gostah sibrih palabra Inggres, kauzu eli sa song mutu Kristang, tantu jenti ngka sabeh Kristang impodih sabeh nus ta falah di psyche. Kiora skribeh, pun podih gadrah Reglasang di Skundeh:


sibrih mpustah: saiki di Inggres sa psyche


Pra inner world, nus pun podih fasel sibrih calquing:


sibrih calquing: mundu rentu ke mundurentu di Inggres inner world


Pra akeli reglasang kung nomi stranjeru, Axiom of Maria, yo lembrah teng ngua frasa Kristang nus tudu logu intindeh:


sibrih enkudah: selang-seling di Kristang sa palabra kunisedu


Asih cognitive function? Klai falah? Kontu bos les peskisador/a sa peskisa na tudu banda, bos logu buskah mutu tantu sorti di nomi diferenti: teng peskisador/a skribeh function, function-attitude, cognitive bias, kung tantu otru nomi. Naki yo lembrah mistih trukah amostra impoku.


Dispois na basu teng yo onsong sa figurah klai jenti kung linggu Kristang podih intindeh banda-banda di saiki kung nus onsong sa bista-mundu, nus onsong sa okel uniku pra olah na rentu. Nomi-nomi inggres chuma "ego" kung "self" mutu trabalu pra jenti nteh PhD, nteh pasensa les skritura PhD. Pra judah mas jenti prendeh di saiki, yo ja skuleh ngua amostra mas jenti podih intindeh: lembrah di (parti numinti di) saiki chuma barku. Kontu saiki chuma barku, asih cognitive function podih fikah angkoza ki barku ropianu ja beng na nus sa parti di mundu buskah:


sibrih enkudah: tempra ((di) mulera) di Kristang sa palabra kunisedu


Oitu sorti di tempra mulera basumbes pun podih achah nomi impoku mas fasel di introverted Intuition, extroverted Sensing, kauzu dah klareza di introverted kung extroverted na Inggres super trabalu. Pra Intuition, Sensing, Thinking kung Feeling jenti sa kabesa pun sempri logu birah kung dia-dia sa andamintu kung aksang di lembrah kung sintih, kung otru angkoza. Pun nggeh sibrih nomi di albi, ke mar, ke sintidu, ke otru, kauzu tempra mulera olotu onsong sa sorti di angkoza mas di angkoza chuma Ego, Hero etc. Taming yo, Fuad kung yo sa studanti ja falah di tempra mulera sibrih olotu sa abbreviation Inggres; chuma saiki, nomi di isti oitu tempra mulera mutu tantu jenti ngka sabeh, impodih kuniseh kiora nus mpustah ke skribeh-soletrah. Asih:


sibrih mpustah: efai di Inggres sa Fi

sibrih mpustah: efi di Inggres sa Fe

sibrih mpustah: tiyai di Inggres sa Ti

sibrih mpustah: tiyi di Inggres sa Te

sibrih mpustah: esai di Inggres sa Si

sibrih mpustah: esi di Inggres sa Se

sibrih mpustah: enai di Inggres sa Ni

sibrih mpustah: eni di Inggres sa Ne


Pra fing, podih chomah Hero, Parent isti nomi chuma postu (di tempra mulera), Ego, Superego banda (di saiki). Na basu skribeh tudu nomi di prumiru 32 postu kung prumiru 16 banda; na post-post prosimu, yo logu dah stiru di klai yo ja skuleh tudu nomi. Nomi di tudu postu dispois 8 kung banda dispois 1 yo sa nomi; nang furtah! Tudu isti yo ja sibrih kung yo sa studanti komesah fing di 2020.


Banda 0 / Angkru na Kristang, Id na Inggres

Sombra (di) Angkru na Kristang, Superid na Inggres


Banda 1 / Galang (di Saiki) na Kristang, Ego na Inggres

Postu 1 / Peskador/a na Kristang, Hero na Inggres

2 / Komprador/a Parent

3 / Nusenti Child

4 / Animu Animus/Anima


Sombra (di) Galang (di Saiki) Superego

5 / Armador/dera Nemesis-Companion

6 / Konselu Critic-Sage

7 / Fitiseru/a Trickster-Shaman

8 / Diabu Demon-Daimon


Banda 2 / Prua Self

9 / Anju Herald

10 / Rejidor/a Tutelary

11 / Marineru Psychopomp

12 / Astrang Emissary


Sombra (di) Prua Superself

13 / Desperadu Revenant-Perpetual

14 / Jaga Gunslinger-Sentinel

15 / Stranjeru/a Wanderer-Celestial

16 / Brigador/dera Crusader-Integral


Banda 3 / Langgiang Spirit

{tokah naseh femi sa} ke {tokah naseh machu sa}*

17 / Mai ke Pai (di Saiki) Sojourner

18 / Fila ke Filu (di Saiki) Stargazer

19 / Filu ke Fila (di Saiki) Luminary

20 / Pai ke Mai (di Saiki) Librarian


Sombra (di) Langgiang Superspirit

{tokah naseh femi sa} ke {tokah naseh machu sa}*

21 / Aboh Femi Pai ke Aboh Machu Mai (di Saiki) Logos or Eros

22 / Aboh Femi Mai ke Aboh Machu Pai (di Saiki) Eros or Logos

23 / Aboh Machu Mai ke Aboh Femi Pai (di Saiki) Aion or Anthropos

24 / Aboh Machu Pai ke Aboh Femi Mai (di Saiki) Anthropos or Aion


*Inda nenang sabeh klai jenti intersex sa saiki logu kriseh na Banda 3, mas yo kereh sabeh! Beng pidih kung yo kora bos kereh :)


Banda 4 / Skota Source

{jenti teng efai, efi, tiyai ke tiyi na postu 1} ke {jenti teng esai, esi, enai ke eni na postu 1}

25 / Tempu Komesu ke Maneseh Spring or Dawn

26 / Maneseh ke Tempu Komesu Dawn or Spring

27 / Midia ke Tempu Kenti Midday or Summer

28 / Tempu Kenti ke Midia Summer or Midday


Sombra (di) Skota Supersource

{jenti teng efai, efi, tiyai ke tiyi na postu 1} ke {jenti teng esai, esi, enai ke eni na postu 1}

29 / Tempu Panyah ke Trindadi Autumn or Dusk

30 / Trindadi ke Tempu Panyah Dusk or Autumn

31 / Anoti Miu ke Tempu Jelu Midnight or Winter

32 / Tempu Jelu ke Anoti Miu Winter or Midnight


Banda 5 / Sokong Sublime

Banda 6 / Bela Essence

Banda 7 / Petaka Salve

Banda 8 / Argola Spark


Banda 9 / Spelu Lake

Banda 10 / Mogu Mycelial

Banda 11 / Kaska Mettle

Banda 12 / Pulu Leap


Banda 13 / Bauchi Shroud

Banda 14 / Andor Meld

Banda 15 / Pasturinya Morph

Banda 16 / Anela Ring

"Mr Wong, I reach 2000th side of the psyche already"


Whenever you introspect or work through your own unconscious material, how do you think about what you're doing? What do you call the archetypes and symbols that show up? For many people (myself included), I think that we still think, label and conceive of these archetypes using English; hence, the images and understandings we arrive at as a result, although not necessarily wrong, are often a little out of place for our particular context and part of the world.


Following the deep and psyche-battering trauma I went through in 2019, I, too, learnt about individuation and the psyche using labels generated in the West when I was in therapy. Again, these are definitely functional, and have helped many people across the globe. However, it is still also possible to conceive of our inner world in a manner that supports our day-to-day experiences and problems in a more nuanced fashion that resonates with us because its architecture and the metaphors supporting it are more aligned with those day-to-day experiences and problems.


Individuation overview: Possible new Kristang words for talking about Individuation


The word individuation in English is definitely a mouthful! Of course, we can start by trying out a possible direct borrowing from English (or Portuguese) for the Kristang equivalent:


using borrowing: individuasang or indibiduasang from English individuation


Fairly straightforward, but doesn't quite preserve the Skundeh Principle, and it is also rather long. However, there is also the word pesua—a little closer to the English word individual compared to Kristang's other word jenti (which is more what we use to just refer to people on the street in daily life, etc.):


using compounding: fikah pesua interu from existing Kristang vocabulary

using derivation: pesuamintu from Kristang pesua with the nominalising suffix -mintu

using derivation: pesuasang from Kristang pesua with the nominalising suffix -sang


fikah pesua interu is again functional but a bit long and unwieldy. Between the latter two, pesuamintu is much closer to the meaning of the original word in English, while pesuasang is much closer to the original morphology owing to -sang in Kristang being equivalent to the English suffix -tion. Fuad and I prefer pesuasang a little more than pesuamintu, but again (as with everything on this blog) all three are totally possible.


What about the verb form to individuate?


using borrowing: indivijuah or indibidjuah from English individuate


Again the Skundeh Principle is not that well preserved; however, if we use the first-syllable drop pattern that we saw in the post about Australia, this becomes:


using borrowing and dropping the first syllable: ndibjah or dibjah


If we use pesua as the root:


using derivation: pesuah from Kristang pesua + -/ɂ/ ke /a/ [= -a, +ah when written]

using derivation: pesueh from Kristang pesua + -/ɂ/ ke /e/ [= -a, +eh when written]


For the adjective individuated, we would then derive it from the chosen verbs:


dibjadu from ndibjah or dibjah

or pesuadu from pesuah

or pesuedu from pesueh


For psyche, borrowing works nicely because the sound of the word fits quite well with Kristang, and most people will not be able to derive its meaning in a fluid Kristang sentence. When written, too, with a conversion for orthography, we would maintain the Skundeh Principle:


using borrowing: saiki from English psyche


For inner world, we can also easily use calquing:


using calquing: mundu rentu or mundurentu from English inner world


For that very strangely-named rule, the Axiom of Maria, I believe a quintessentially Kristang turn of phrase would suffice nicely:


using extension: selang-seling from existing Kristang vocabulary


What about cognitive function? There are many different names for this: there are researchers who write function, function-attitude, cognitive bias, and so on. Here is where we may need to take a little sidetrip into the land of metaphor.



Ngua di prumiru bes kiora yo sibrih peskisa pesuamintu na yo sa lisang-lisang di H1 General Paper. Bos gostah akeli klor? Sertu olah figura teng impoku midu :D

An early attempt to not frighten my students when I was first working individuation theory into my H1 General Paper lessons. Hey, at least there were colours :)


The translations that follow after are my own attempt to provide a slightly clearer approach (still intimidating, but hopefully less so!) to understanding what exactly individuation theory is trying to get at within the psyche. Terms like the "ego" and "self" are already pretty difficult for people without a PhD to comprehend, and I have always believed that mental health and an understanding of one's self, like linguistics, should be something that one should largely be able to access on one's own to a certain degree (unintentional pun, sorry). With that in mind, as well as my own particular Kristang context, I liken the psyche to a ship in the protracted metaphor below; and with the psyche as a ship, the word for cognitive function can also become the thing that European explorers were striving so hard to find in our part of the world:


using extension: tempra ((di) mulera) from existing Kristang vocbulary


The eight basal tempra mulera also receive slightly less frightening terms than introverted Intuition, extroverted Sensing, etc. especially because trying to clarify what introverted and extroverted actually mean in English is immensely frustrating (guys, introversion and extroversion in this system are not about how many people you can meet before you want to run away and hide. Book some life coaching or ask me about my Individuation course if you want to know more!) For the terms Intuition, Sensing, Thinking and Feeling people also often confuse these with the ordinary meanings of thinking and feeling (the students who have come to me claiming that based on the damn MBTI test they have decided that they cannot think have been also super koitadu); neither do I want to overcomplicate the metaphor by assigning names of flowers, spices, oceans etc. to the tempra mulera. Indeed, Fuad, myself and my students often simply refer to the tempra mulera by their abbreviations; just like the word saiki, they are not well-understood even by Engish speakers, and are often mistaken for Kristang words. So why not:


using borrowing: efai from English Fi

using borrowing: efi from English Fe

using borrowing: tiyai from English Ti

using borrowing: tiyi from English Te

using borrowing: esai from English Si

using borrowing: esi from English Se

using borrowing: enai from English Ni

using borrowing: eni from English Ne


Finally, we can call the archetypes like Hero, Parent postu (di tempra mulera) and the sides of the psyche like Ego, Superego banda (di saiki). Below I have listed the names of the first 32 archetypes and first 16 sides as I have used them with my students since end 2020; in subsequent posts, I will explain how I derived and chose the names, similar to what John Beebe did for first 8 postu in English here. The names of everything else listed below (and the order of everything else, and all the rules governing why it works the way it works, which I will blog about to some degree as well) were derived by me between April 2020 and May 2022; nang furtah (don't steal; you can use but please credit me or link to the site!)


0th (Zeroth) Side / Angkru in Kristang, Id in English

Sombra (di) Angkru in Kristang, Superid in English


1st Side / Galang (di Saiki) in Kristang, Ego in English

1st Function / Peskador/a in Kristang, Hero in English

2nd / Komprador/a Parent

3rd / Nusenti Child

4th / Animu Animus/Anima


Sombra (di) Galang (di Saiki) Superego

5th / Armador/dera Nemesis-Companion

6th / Konselu Critic-Sage

7th / Fitiseru/a Trickster-Shaman

8th / Diabu Demon-Daimon


2nd Side / Prua Self

9th / Anju Herald

10th / Rejidor/a Tutelary

11th / Marineru Psychopomp

12th / Astrang Emissary


Sombra (di) Prua Superself

13th / Kafri Revenant-Perpetual

14th / Jaga Gunslinger-Sentinel

15th / Stranjeru/a Wanderer-Celestial

16th / Brigador/dera Crusader-Integral


3rd Side / Langgiang Spirit

{for those born biologically female} or {those born biologically male}*

17th / Mai or Pai (di Saiki) Sojourner

18th / Fila or Filu (di Saiki) Stargazer

19th / Filu or Fila (di Saiki) Luminary

20th / Pai or Mai (di Saiki) Librarian


Sombra (di) Langgiang Superspirit

{for those born biologically female} or {those born biologically male}*

21st / Aboh Machu Pai or Aboh Femi Mai (di Saiki) Logos or Eros

22nd / Aboh Femi Mai or Aboh Machu Pai (di Saiki) Eros or Logos

23rd / Aboh Machu Mai or Aboh Femi Pai (di Saiki) Aion or Anthropos

24th / Aboh Femi Pai or Aboh Machu Mai (di Saiki) Anthropos or Aion


* Am not yet clear about what happens for intersex people but definitely very happy to talk about it with anyone who wishes to!

EDIT: An earlier version of this post had errors in the Machu/Femi distribution for the 21st to 24th functions. These were corrected on 20 September 2022.


4th Side / Skota Source

{for people with Fe, Fi, Te or Ti as 1st function} or {people with Se, Si, Ni or Ne as 1st function}

25 / Tempu Komesu or Maneseh Spring or Dawn

26 / Maneseh or Tempu Komesu Dawn or Spring

27 / Midia or Tempu Kenti Midday or Summer

28 / Tempu Kenti or Midia Summer or Midday


Sombra (di) Skota Supersource

{for people with Fe, Fi, Te or Ti as 1st function} or {people with Se, Si, Ni or Ne as 1st function}

29 / Tempu Panyah or Trindadi Autumn or Dusk

30 / Trindadi or Tempu Panyah Dusk or Autumn

31 / Anoti Miu or Tempu Jelu Midnight or Winter

32 / Tempu Jelu or Anoti Miu Winter or Midnight


5th Side / Sokong Sublime

6th Side / Bela Essence

7th Side / Petaka Salve

8th Side / Argola Spark


9th Side / Spelu Lake

10th Side / Mogu Mycelial

11th Side / Kaska Mettle

12th Side / Pulu Leap


13th Side / Bauchi Shroud

14th Side / Andor Meld

15th Side / Pasturinya Morph

16th Side / Anela Ring

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