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Jardinggu Keninu: Klai kriseh palabra nubu Kristang / How I grow new Kristang words

Sertu yo sigih reglasang di Jardinggu Kodrah Kristang, ja fazeh na 2017 antis pandemic:

1 / Documentation: Kontu ingkontrah palabra nubu di bela-belu Kristang, bai buskah eli na palaredi; kontu palaredi nteh, podih juntah

2 / Ganchah: Ganchah prefix ke suffix na dianti ke fora di palabra Kristang kunisedu

3 / Phrasal Compounding: Juntah grupu di palabra fikah compound lexeme nubu

4 / Compounding: Juntah dos palabra Kristang kunisedu fikah ngua palabra nubu; dos-dos ngka trukah olotu sa figura

5 / Champurah: Igual chuma compounding, mas palabra podih trukah ke kutrah figura

6 / Kortah: Kutrah ngua palabra Kristang kunisedu

7 / Back-Formation: Tirah mparti di ngua palabra Kristang kunisedu

8 / Enkudah: Enkudah signifiku di ngua palabra Kristang kunisedu

9 / Mpustah: Mpustah palabra di otru di Kristang sa linggu nasang: China-Mandarin, Hakka, Hokkien, Hindi, Inggres, Kantonis, Landes, Makista, Malayalam, Melayu, Portugis, Portugis di Sri Lanka, Tamil ke (Portugis di) Tugu.

10 / Calquing: Linggustah frasa di otru linggu

Mas di isti des reglasang, yo pun teng yo onsong sa kuatru andasang pra yo sa jarding keninu:

11: Reglasang di Skundeh / Kontu podih, palabra nubu mistih gadrah Kristang sa signifiku chuma linggu sigredu.

12: Reglasang di Lembrah / Kontu podih, otru jenti mistih podih lembrah palabra nubu seng mutu tantu trabalu.

13: Reglasang di Rostu / Pra nomi di tera, jenti kung otru angkoza di kultura kung ardansa, kontu podih, palabra nubu mistih dah rostu kung akeli angkoza sa donu/a dretu kung trauma

14. Reglasang di Animu Kristang / Kontu podih, palabra nubu mistih gadrah kultura kung ardansa Kristang

Reglasang 11-14 impoku vague, mas isti yo onsong sa jarding, onsong sa spasu pra kriseh palabra. Yo pun papianti Kristang; asih yo sa song pun teng balor, pun mistidu.

Sertu yo sa jardinggu keninu logu kriseh basu di mar Of course my Jardinggu Keninu would be underwater

I of course follow the ten basic processes that Kodrah Kristang set out in 2017 before the pandemic, when our Jardinggu was still meeting and discussing new words regularly:

1 / Documentation: Add a word that is used by native speakers but is not found in existing lexicographical material.

2 / Derivation: Add a prefix or suffix to an existing word.

3 / Phrasal Compounding: Designate a string of existing Kristang words as a new compound lexeme; existing word boundaries are maintained.

4 / Compounding: Combine two existing Kristang words to create a new word; little or no morphological change.

5 / Blending: Combine two existing Kristang words to create a new word; one or more morphemes from either word is shortened.

6 / Clipping: Shorten an existing Kristang word.

7 / Back-Formation: Detach a supposed affix from an existing Kristang word.

8 / Extension: Extend the meaning of an existing Kristang word.

9 / Borrowing: Using a word or part of a word from Kristang’s sister languages, Maquista or Tugu Creole, or from one of Kristang’s source languages: Cantonese, Dutch, English, Hakka, Hindi, Hokkien, Malay, Malayalam, Mandarin, Portuguese, Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese or Tamil.

10 / Calquing: Creating a literal Kristang translation of a word or phrase from another language

Beyond these 10 rules, I also have my own set of four principles for generating words in this Jardinggu Keninu:

11: Skundeh Principle / Suggested new words should try to maintain Kristang's versatility as a "secret" language (i.e. as almost all of our heritage speakers in Singapore describe, a language for Kristang / Portuguese-Eurasian people to use in public without being too easily understood by others) as far as possible

12: Lembrah Principle / Suggested new words should be remembered without too much trouble

13: Rostu Principle / For names of places, peoples or any other entities that are cultural or heritage-related, suggested new words should try to honour indigenous or local perspectives and trauma as far as possible

14. Animu Kristang Principle / Suggested new words should try to maintain the general spirit and vibe of the Portuguese-Eurasian / Kristang culture as far as possible

The principles listed under 11-14 are a little nebulous, but then, this is my own garden of language, and as a heritage speaker of Kristang myself, my choices have their own value and importance as well.


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